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Sexual 5 In Detail

Avarice in the Sexual Sphere

As the instinct of relations leaks into the passion of Avarice, it gives a highly conflicting character, it is a greed for one-on-one relationships. This character wanders life as a withdrawn and distrustful person, withholding itself from social interaction in fear of being hurt. Yet, they idealize the idea of trust, they need someone to feel safe with, a refuge. Due to lack of love growing up they become some type of hopeless romantic. Because of their distrusting nature, they hold back of their affection for fear of being rejected, only once a deep bond is created that they can let their guard down and truly show the real them, and then a very vibrant side is released. When finally becoming transparent, they expect for nothing more than for the figure they are becoming intimate with to reveal all of themselves as well, as trust is what matters the most.

Ichazo called the SX5 "Confidence", a need for someone to feel safe with, a person of refuge[1], an excessive demand for trust and to be able to trust and love.[2] Naranjo would define avarice in the sexual instinct as an invasive possessiveness that demands trust and surrender as excessive as their need for love is excessive.[2]

The following Trait Structure are a summarized description of the original descriptions taken from the Enneagram 5 book/Avaricia: mezquinos, arrogantes e indiferentes. The Book was written by devoted followers and students of Claudio Naranjo but published under his name and supervised by him.

Trait Structure[3]

Fragile body in a nonconformist spirit

With sexual children, it is common to hear stories of a first childhood of suffering, not only due to the emotional impact of the parents but also due to physical fragility.
One person recounts that at the age of ten months he suffered from a severe allergy, which almost led to his death, due to spoiled powdered milk. Breast milk had been withdrawn at three months, and there was inaugurated little physical contact and a life marked by illness.
These reports of early loss of contact with the mother associated with the experience of being very close to death are common. Thinkers of this subtype like Wordsworth and Rousseau lost their mothers when they were still children. And both the French thinker and Chopin had childhoods marked by illness and closeness to death. The Polish musician and his sister were taken, as children, by a very strong flu, which resulted in her death. From then on, for Chopin, it was as if death was always at his side.
In the same proportion as this physical fragility, there is an intense desire for power: the sexual E5 does not accept his fragile condition.

In need of harmony, to flee to nature

Since contact with the other destabilizes the sexual E5, an inhospitable environment can be lethal. The person of this character, due to his fear of being swallowed, needs the contact to translate into a harmonious environment.
The aforementioned Chopin from an early age isolated himself to play the piano and, in the end, as there was harmony in George Sand's house, he enjoyed a happy and productive life. Sand was more of a mother to Chopin than a lover, and she hardly demanded of him.
The sexual E5 finds much of this harmony in contact with nature, his divine muse, with whom, yes, he maintains a unilateral relationship, favored by the silence of his inspirer. He will also seek a refuge in nature to organize his inner chaos. Nature becomes the idealized 'woman' or 'man', where she believes she will find answers to her questions.
“This was how I managed to forget the chaos of my family life and "empty" some of the passion I felt for a girl.” – Alexandre V.

Arid and at the same time hypersensitive

Given its retention, when a sexual E5 tries to express himself authentically, what he finds is very dry. Alongside the disconnection of feeling, there is the idea that to feel is to explode, to lose oneself, perhaps even to die.
And at the same time, it presents a hypersensitivity that does not coincide with its arid and distant appearance, a by-product of the low vitality of the body and spirit.
“If I am very open to what is happening around me, I suffer a lot. I spare myself that sensitivity with a neck split that separates my emotions from thought.” – Mara G.
In fact, such a low threshold for physical and emotional pain is the backdrop for an almost deserted posture of feeling. The sexual Five prefers not to enter a field that can evoke their most primal pains. And this is how aridity and hypersensitivity feed off each other. It is as if there was an extreme pain somewhere in himself that, if revived, he could not bear and would pay with his life.

Easily destabilized

The feeling that his resources are so scarce leads him to succumb to the other. Anyone who appears in his way tactfully makes him lose with his own desires. The other destabilizes the sexual E5.
”I lose myself in front of the other. I withdraw from my internal axis; I find myself facing external demands that exhaust me and I feel the need to isolate myself to recharge my batteries. It is my need for solitude.” – Mara G.  
The person of this character was so invaded in his childhood that even today he lives with the feeling of that exposure -and the weakness to defend himself- and stays in the rear so that they do not invade him too much in a phagocytizing contact.


Nostalgia has tied the sexual E5, stagnant by an excessive attachment to the past that prevents him from assuming responsibility for his life and moving forward. He lives in the nostalgia of enlightened times that no longer exist, and perhaps did not even exist, full of idealizations.
He finds no joy in living, no lightness in being sexual, no brilliance. He doesn't indulge in playfulness; he doesn't play and he doesn't value little things (because they don't belong to the divine sphere).
“Nostalgia, eternal nostalgia that always consumed me," he said Chopin, who had lived in Paris from a very young age, but people from Poland were always the source of his images and pen feelings. "Twilight": that's what they called the states of mood of the composer.


Existential helplessness is present from childhood.
“Sometimes I was playing and suddenly the world disappeared under my feet. I lost ground. It was sudden and brief but I felt extremely lonely.” – Alexandre V.
“Helplessness seems so common to me that I feel as if it were the covers me It's like having no skin.” – Mara G.

Does not assert its place in the world

One of the consequences of his psychic split is the neglect of the social and professional dimensions, where he is doomed to a routine and simple life. The desire for external freedom, a reflection of the lack of internal freedom, cannot be satisfied and is then transformed into the opposite features of systematicity and rigidity, similar to those of the E1.
He has succumbed to the neurosis of financial security and the comfort of an institution, while remaining with a boiling heart and excessive fantasy as compensation for a routinely life, as well as a desire to always go somewhere else.
Until the age of forty-six, ten years before he died, Nietzsche worked hard in solitude and anonymity. He pressed himself cruelly because he could no longer bear his lack of recognition. Just like Rousseau, at thirty-eight still a "nobody," as he was called. Inside there was an indomitable spirit, but he had not been able to affirm his place in the world.
“At the moments when I realize how much I closed my life off from friendships and from my work, which is the reality from which I was fleeing, through refuge and fantasy. In the end, I ended up doing little concretely, and when I look back a "feeling of urgency" comes over me. It's like looking back and seeing a gap between what I'm being right now and what I've been in my life, with a lack of "continuity." I realize that I lived in a kind of “forgetfulness” of myself and that now that this is the case I have to run. And again, there is a very strong call to enter the world of fantasy and inactivity, as if everything was already lost.” – Alexandre V.


An outstanding trait of Greed is not feeling worthy, due to a lack of vitality to face challenges. This, in the sexual instinct, coexists with excessive and grandiose fantasy. The result: unrealistic and unfinished projects. The E5 sexual easily renounces his life projects. «I rarely completed what I set out to do», «I never delved into anything I did».
An abyss of oblivion opens between planning and acting: a great gap between fantasy and action. In his thinking, he manages to maintain a level of motivation that, when heading towards the sphere of action, is lost. A great distance is perceived between what he wanted and what, for the moment, he is ready to carry out. It is another result of psychic and bodily splitting and fragmentation.


Here is another trait that contributes to this state of inaction. From thought to action, motivation and determination disappear and thus a disciplined life is difficult.
An indiscipline that is also the result of forgetfulness and de-vitalization. Operates here, the irrational idea of not being able to complete a stage of your life and move on, because "completion" means letting go and opening up to the new. To which is added that internal mechanism that prevents him from seeing any of his rights (minimizing his desires), in addition to a perfectionism that makes him believe that he is never ready. Deep down, the sexual E5 feels like a son who is not allowed to separate from his mother, which reveals his false autonomy.

Vengeful; not doing what is expected

The psychodynamics of withdrawal include a subtle but effective act of rebellion. Sometimes it is an act of revenge against the demands of that internalized, hypercritical and severe mother, with her perennial: "You don't finish anything you start!". The result of this conflict between internal demands and the rebellion of not doing is guilt and failure.

Guilty feeling

Feeling guilty for a sexual E5 is closely linked to the awareness that their isolation is a form of revenge, of aggression. Guilt leads him, therefore, to resign himself.
“Perhaps my most frequent feeling of guilt is about not having energy. I blame myself for it and that takes away my energy to act, it's a vicious circle. I realize that guilt is a way of maintaining the feeling of victimization, of keeping myself small.” – Maria Luisa F.
A childhood full of demands and messages of undervaluation, and of feeling undeserving, is common:
“Everything my mother gave me came with guilt. When she gave me a toy or clothes, she would say, "I stopped giving it to myself to give it to you!" These messages corroborated the feeling of poverty, scarcity and, above all, that of not being worthy of something positive in life. I perceive any change in my partner's mood as if it were against me, because of me. So, I react like a child or a teenager: I shut myself in and isolate myself, and I feel even more guilty about that estrangement.” – Alexandre V.

Selfish and self-centered

By idealizing the partner, or the one with whom he has an affective relationship, the sexual E5 does not see him as a different person from him, with his own emotions and needs. You need a partner who shows extreme loyalty to your way of life (the idealization of trust). The other is someone who has to conform to him totally so that he can feel that there is love. And, above all, be always available, even guessing what you want; in the end, a mirror that reflects your image. The very organization of the activities or of the time will have to be in accordance with its rhythm; Only then will the other be a true reliable ally.


He can deny the defensiveness of isolation, convincing himself that his is a special world, that he himself is special and therefore cannot be in relationship with "ordinary" beings. It is about his difficulty behind that image of superiority or unattainable person. And he closes himself in his world of ideas, convinced that he understands something subtle that others do not have the ability to perceive. In the confrontation with the other, he tends to present his ideas as unquestionable, and feels entitled to correct others.


This sexual subtype conquers with an erotic seduction without a display of feathers or a sexually attractive image according to this passion; rather, he gets closer in an intimate way, sending messages of interest and with the physical closeness of a contact that can even be delicate.
Obviously, he can use mental attunement or interest in the intellectual but, in any case, among the E5 subtypes he is the most sensually daring.
Your search for the ideal partner can make you compulsively seduce different people at the same time. He is very adept at not taking a clear initiative; Rather, he weaves a web into which the other person falls. This strategy avoids direct rejection and hides his relational awkwardness; Above all, this way he controls his fear of intimacy and the instinctive impulse.
Acting from the compartmentalization, maintaining different relationships at the same time, finally allows him not to enter into emotional chaos or the guilt of the betrayal. Many sexual E5 admit to being unfaithful with a certain “easiness”, just as they withdraw or disappear if the relationship no longer pleases them or it creates problems for them.


The sexual E5 is the most emotional of the E5. Romanticism is the way in which he allows himself to be carried away by emotions. More than in the couple relationship, although also, romanticism emerges in contact with music, art or nature. It's easier when listening to music to feel your heartbeat or surrender to abandonment, something. that would be experienced as very dangerous in the human relationship.

Claudio Naranjo's Sexual 5 Description[4]

E5 Sexual – Trust

The word trust would be the basic issue for the sexual five. Among them there are many poets or artists. Nijinsky was such a five. He had an extreme expressiveness, but cut in many ways.

If you try to find the difference between the sexual E5 and the other subtypes of the five, it will not be easy. But if you go into conversation with them, you'll hear them say that they feel very passionate about a person; usually about a person they can't find in their lives. Here occurs a case similar to the extraordinary in the search for the social five — the extraordinary would be what is at the top of the totem pole: the sexual E5 seeks a very tall exemplar. The same goes for love: this subtype is on a quest for absolute love, and their quest is so strong that if you are the one being sought, it is very difficult to pass the test. If someone is looking for the absolute, it is very easy for him to be disappointed.

We have to understand this passionate search in the sense of trust, of being able to trust the other: the sexual E5 is looking for that person who will be for him and with him, regardless of how or what, far beyond normal vows of an engagement or marriage. The thought of the sexual five is that he has to be able to present himself to you with the worst of his inner world, and that you, as his partner, should maintain complete equanimity in the face of his inner monsters, since he loves you so much…

So he lives the love of a couple as a kind of ideal, but it is an ideal that does not exist in the world of humans. The sexual E5 is quite romantic — this is the minus five of the E5s. They can be very similar to the other five until you hit the romantic point: then a vibrant inner life will be awakened. Chopin can be a good example of it. Who if not the most romantic among composers? Chopin was more of an aristocrat. He was a bit stiff. Someone who knew him quite well—Liszt's mistress—said of him that she was like an oyster with icing: he wasn't very open, he wasn't open to deep intimacy, except with one or two people in his life. Chopin came from Poland and came to France as a teenager, but he did not make any new friends in France. He was in the center of high society, and his whole sentimental life was replaced by music.

Sandra Maitri's Sexual 5 Description[5]

5+Sexual – Confidence

Sexual Fives lack confidence in their attractiveness, capacity for relationship, and sexual performance. This makes it difficult for them to follow through on their attractions, despite the false confidence that they manifest as a compensation for their sense of inadequacy or undesirability. As Ichazo says, a Sexual Five “needs someone he feels safe with—a refuge” in order to overcome his inhibitions. The passion of avarice manifests here as a holding back of his affection for fear of being rejected and a holding on to his love object once he has set his sights on her.

Beatrice Chestnut's Sexual 5 Description

Sexual (One-to-One) 5 Subtype description (2021)[6]

This subtype searches for the ideal or ultimate relationship. But they can become too picky about the people to whom they want to be close, sometimes requiring the “right person” to pass a lot of tests. They have a romantic, artistic, or imaginative streak, and a strong connection to their emotions, but they usually communicate them only indirectly through some medium of self-expression. Unlike the other Type 5 subtypes, they have a greater need for intimacy under the right circumstances—usually when they find someone they trust who will appreciate them despite their flaws.

If this is your subtype, you limit the people with whom you can connect deeply by being very selective and demanding a high level of trust in your personal relationships. While you want a high degree of intimacy with a partner, you may limit your availability for true intimacy by needing to control the relationship and exaggerating the amount of trust you require to open up. By searching for the ultimate in relationship, you may resist opportunities that life brings to connect with a wider range of regular people.

Sexual 5 Subtype summary (2021)[9]

Sexual Fives express avarice through a search for ideal exemplars of absolute love. This is a Five with a romantic streak. The name reflects their need to find a partner who fulfills an ideal of trust. The most emotionally sensitive of the Fives, they suffer more, resemble Type Four more, and have more overt desires. They have a vibrant inner life that may be expressed through artistic creation but are still cut off from others in many ways.

Sexual 5 Subtype description (2021)[9]

The Sexual Five: “Confidence” (Countertype) 

In the Sexual Five, avarice is expressed through an ongoing search for a connection that will satisfy their need for an experience of the most perfect, safest, and most satisfying (idealized) union. This Five may look like the other two Five subtypes on the outside, having all the regular Five inhibitions and introversion in the area of relationship, but the Sexual Five places a special value on one-to-one or intimate connections.

This Five has a passion for finding a special person they can connect with deeply, sometimes a person they cannot find or have yet to find. Like the Social Five, this Five also searches for a high ideal, but this Five looks for the ideal in the realm of love. This Five feels a need to find a high exemplar of absolute love. Like the search for the extraordinary of the Social Five, the ideal kind of connection this Five searches for represents a very high standard. Sexual Fives seek something like the ultimate mystical union—an experience of the divine in human relationship. And this can also happen with the search for good friends or a spiritual teacher.

While Social and Self-Preservation Fives are more removed from their emotions, the Sexual Five is intense, romantic, and more emotionally sensitive. This Five suffers more, resembles the Four more, and has more overt desires. This is the countertype among the Fives. It may not be completely obvious from the outside, however—they may seem very much like other Fives until you touch their romantic spot and inspire their romantic feelings.

While they can appear reserved or laconic on the outside, Sexual Fives have a vibrant internal life that is highly romantic. There are examples of Sexual Five artists—like Chopin, who Naranjo notes is the most romantic of the classical composers—who display extreme emotional expressiveness through their artistic creations but are cut off in many ways from others in the everyday world.

Sexual Fives live in an inner world filled with ideation, theories, and utopian fantasies about finding unconditional love. They live for a couple’s love as a kind of ultimate or ideal experience of connection. However, what they search for represents an idealized form of relationship that may not exist in the human world.

Trust is the basic issue with the Sexual Five. The name Naranjo ascribes to this subtype is “Confidence,” which has a special meaning related to an ability to trust the other, and suggests a search for the person who will be with you no matter what, the partner (or friend) that you can trust with all your secrets. Confidence is the kind of ideal that makes Sexual Fives very romantic deep inside. They search for an idealized version of love and relationship as a source of meaning in life.

The Sexual Five’s search for a high exemplar of connection is so exacting that it’s very hard to pass their test with consistency if you are the person in relationship with them. It’s very easy for the Sexual Five to be disappointed. This subtype has such a great need to trust in the other that the need is not easily satisfied, and so there can be a lot of testing in their relationships.

Fives tend to be a private people, but this Five has a great need for intimacy under the right circumstances—if they can find a person they can really trust to love them despite their flaws. This subtype expresses a need to be completely transparent with their partner, and they need their partner to be very open as well—and this ideal of trust and intimacy is not easy to find. Because of this, Sexual Fives can get very picky about the people they have relationships with, and they can become frustrated when they discover that the other is human. If a partner does not live up to their expectations of transparency and openness, they tend to feel disappointed and—because they have a fear of being hurt by others—to isolate themselves.

Some Sexual Fives say that their search for an ultimate kind of connection does not only center on relationships with a lover or life partner. One Five said he related to the idea of “emotional promiscuity,” saying, “I want ultimate contact with a lot of people,” one at a time. And some Fives with this subtype report that although they feel guarded in the face of too much emotional intensity, they have a deep desire for intimacy with a trusted few. One Five with this subtype described especially appreciating the experience of “clicking” with someone—the feeling of having chemistry with another person—saying that when he felt this he could become infatuated very quickly.

Although the Sexual Five may look like a Type Four, this Five is still quite Five-ish, so is not likely to be mistaken for a Four. And while this subtype is the Five countertype and seeks to manifest an ideal of intimacy, it may be hard to discern the difference between this Five and the other two Fives, as all of the Five subtypes experience a need to withdraw. However, This Five has a need to find a special relationship that will provide both safety and an ultimate kind of love.

Stephen, a sexual five, talks about his subtype:

“Full access to my feelings came after I started doing body work in my early 30s, and they were, and sometimes still are, very confusing and overwhelming- especially “softer” emotions like compassion. I'll find myself with tears welling up at times and need to look inside for the trigger, which can be as simple as the sight of a homeless person on the side of the road. My adult life has been a constant tension between my point's need to pull in a husband and my (emotional, physical, intellectual, financial) resources, and a mostly stronger drive to reach out and connect, not merely with my intimate partner, but nearly everywhere.

The reaching out is an attempt to fill an existential-psychic hole that seems to have existed from a prenatal stage. I seek connection with others to avoid feeling that emptiness. The name of the subtype, Confidence, is about building a bond with another (or many others on a one-to-one basis). For instance, when I have to give talks to a group, I find a single person to be my focus, while appearing to address the group. Relationships are the most fearful of objects, yet the most needed.

I have been called out on enneagram panels as not looking like other fives- too flamboyant, too out, too willing to talk about the inner landscape and the demons that inhabit it. This is true, and in my youth it was (physical) camouflage. Now it is merely a way of being. I have learned that the desire to disappear into the background of my youth was a false hope, and since I cannot disappear, I might just as well be who I really am.

The most important thing that needs to be understood about the sexual five is that we are in a constant struggle between the withdrawing and withholding (stinginess) of the basic point, and the need to reach out and connect driven by the instinctual energy of the subtype. Behind this tension is an emotional sensitivity that is hidden to the outside world and also to the five until they [we] allow awareness of emotions into their daily life.”

Specific Work For The Sexual Fives on the Path from Vice to Virtue[9]

Sexual Fives can travel the path from avarice to nonattachment by noticing and working against the tendency to hold others to high standards as a way of avoiding intimacy. Recognize when you are testing others or adhering to impossible standards of connection as a way to avoid your fear and defend against your own fear of exposure. Notice the ways in which you might close yourself off to contact even as you long for it. Work toward achieving the intimate connection you desire- not through an attachment to an idea of what love can be, but through taking the risk to express your real feelings to the people in your life. Allow yourself to feel into and work with the fear that arises as you open yourself up to deeper relationships and authentic expressions of your emotions. Release your preconceived ideas about what connecting with others is supposed to be about, and challenge yourself to just allow contact to happen. Let yourself be surprised by life, and communicate the beauty of your deeply romantic feelings and desires more frequently and in more ways.


Haiki Sexual 5 Description[7]

Sexual Five: (Dis-)Trust

As in Fours, within Sexual Fives, we find a lot of people with a feathered pen and a propensity toward the world of art. The search for the extraordinary we see in the Social Five, in this subtype, is something much more concrete. They have the other more present in mind, even if it’s hard for them to bond, commit, and always be with someone.

The normal passion of the Five is transmitted into a passion for trust in this subtype. If they make the enormous effort of letting you enter their internal world, they demand that there is an absolute trust; because of this, they only let very, very few people join into such a fragile, demanding, and intimate relationship. It is easy to imagine that romantic love lives through idealization in this subtype, the concept always quite present in their lives.

Reinforcing this concept, we look at the words of the therapist Mireia Darder: “Our fantasy consists of us being able to be and daring ourselves to love when the partner that understands us appears at last. In this relationship, we believe that we will always be able to be ourselves completely, and we can become extremely demanding with the other, given the high expectations we put on them. That person is an idealization, and as such, it is impossible that they exist. At the beginning of a relationship it can feel like the other is everything we’ve idealized, but as the relationship continues, we realize the person is human, and frustration follows. We then emotionally inhibit ourselves and isolate ourselves completely. Until basic needs of a relationship and affection have accumulated again and there’s a need to channel this energy again. Because of this, we look for someone perfect who we can tell everything to or we look for a new partner to start fresh.”

They have notably more energy than other subtypes and struggle less going into action. Everything being said, people that they feel very secure with and have gained their trust are considered worthy to access their inner worlds. Those privileged people will receive all their attention, and when we say all, we mean all. The Sexual Five focuses like none other. They tend to have a very eccentric side, which causes a need for and fear of it being known.

Carmen Durán and Antonio Catalán's Sexual 5 Description[8]

SX5: Confidence -> Exclusivity

For this subtype, we prefer the term “Exclusivity” due to the fact that this confidence is not open to more than one person. The desire is one of an exclusive relationship. Refuge is placed in one person only, someone they can truly trust in, who they can feel safe with, someone who replaces the whole world, with whom intimacy is possible, with whom they can show their true selves. It is a desire impassioned with intimacy, with finding someone that will never fail them, that is always going to be there for them, that accepts them for all that they are. The romantic fantasies play a role in the hallucinated satisfaction of desire, being able to appeal to these fantasies in moments of greatest frustration. In reality, having someone exclusively means empowering themselves through that person. From solitude and defensive isolation, there is a hunger for love, a desire of incorporating the other, of turning them into a part of themselves, as a guarantee of stopping being alone without having to leave their refuge. They therefore establish a spontaneously dependent relationship, but in which the needs of the others do not count.

Don Riso and Russ Hudson Sexual 5 Description[10]




"This Is My World." In the average range, the detachment and avoidance characteristic of Fives clash with the Sexual Variant's desire for intense connection. Sexual Fives like sharing secret information with their intimates. ("I've never told anyone this.") But they are always experiencing some degree of tension between pursuing those they are attracted to and lacking confidence in their social skills. Thus Sexual Fives are driven to engage intensely with people, although often with anxiety and a tendency to withdraw at a moments notice. They are more affable and talkative than the other two Instinctual Variants of Type Five, but they can cause others surprise and consternation when they unexpectedly drop out and disappear for periods of time. On the one hand, when romantically interested in someone, theycan become extremely open and merged, more like Nines. On the other, when they feel unappreciated or misunderstood, they can quickly become emotionally distant. Powerful connections with others alternate with long periods of isolation.


The sexual instinct mixes with intellect to produce intense imagination. Sexual Fives create alternative realities—private "worlds" of various kinds—that they present to potential intimates. They are looking for the ideal mate, the mate for life, who will not be turned off by their strangeness. ("Does this intensity frighten you?") Strong sexuality gives Sexual Fives the impetus to risk emotional contact and also provides relief from their constant mental activity. It becomes a way to ground themselves. But in less healthy Fives, the mix of imagination and sexuality can become dark and fetishistic: they can become lost in disturbing fantasies and dreams.


In the unhealthy range, longing for lost love and feelings of rejection can lead Sexual Fives into isolation and self-destructive behavior.They are often drawn, through voyeurism, into dangerous lifestyles andmcan be attracted to society's underbelly.



[1] "The Arica Training according to John C Lilly and Joseph E Tart"

[2] Naranjo, C. (2017). "Ensayos sobre psicología de los eneatipos"

[3] Naranjo, C. (2021) "Avaricia: mezquinos, arrogantes e indiferentes" (Translated by adri)

[4] Naranjo, C. (2012). "27 personajes en busca del ser"

[5] Maitri, S. (2001). "The Spiritual Dimension of the Enneagram"

[6] Chestnut, B. (2021). "The Enneagram Guide to Waking Up"

[7] The Haiki Enneagram Website (Link To Subtype Translations)

[8] Durán, C. and Catalán, A. (2009). "Los engaños del carácter y sus antídotos"

[9] Chestnut, B. (2021). "The Complete Enneagram"

[10]Don Riso and Russ Hudson (1999),The Wisdom of the Enneagram: The Complete Guide to Psychological and Spiritual Growth for the Nine Personality Types

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