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Beatrice Chestnut


One of the most authoritative voices and thought leaders in the modern Enneagram movement, Beatrice Chestnut has been studying and working with the enneagram for 27 years, since she learned about the system from pioneering Enneagram expert, David Daniels, MD.

A licensed psychotherapist, a coach, and a business consultant, she has a Phd in communication and an MA in clinical psychology. She did her early Enneagram training with Daniels and Enneagram author Helen Palmer, receiving her teacher certification through their Enneagram Professional Training Program in 1997. She has taken several of organization development consultant Ginger Lapid-Bogda’s Enneagram in Business trainings, and has participated in Claudio Naranjo’s SAT retreats and subtype trainings.

She became active in the international Enneagram community through attending annual conferences regularly in 2002. She served on the board of directors of the International Enneagram Association (IEA) for 6 years and was president of the IEA in 2006 and 2007. She was founding co-editor of the IEA’s now defunct Enneagram Journal in 2008 with Jerry Wagner and David Burke.

A life-long learner herself, Chestnut has taught on the collegiate level at Northwestern University and San Francisco’s California Institute of Integral Studies. She was trained in group facilitation at Stanford University’s Graduate School of Business and has worked for many years as a facilitator of human sensitivity training groups associated with the GSB’s legendary “Interpersonal Dynamics” course, also known affectionately as “Touch Feely.”

Beatrice is the author of two books, The Complete Enneagram: 27 Paths to Greater Self-Awareness, and The 9 Types of Leadership: Mastering the Art of People in the 21st-Century Workplace. She also compiled the popular booklet, The 27 Enneagram System’s 27 Personality Subtypes, a short summary of Claudio Naranjo’s seminal subtype teachings, which she is expanding into a larger Enneagram Subtypes handbook to be published in 2018.

Over the last eight years, the center of gravity of Chestnut’s work has shifted from depth psychotherapy to executive coaching, leadership development, and team coaching. She has worked with companies representing a wide array of industries, include biotech, hi-tech, marketing, consulting, finance, and health care.

She also teaches workshops on the Enneagram internationally, focusing on using it as a tool for personal and professional transformation. She has presented her work around the world in places like South Korea, South Africa, Argentina, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Italy, the United Kingdom, and Canada and all across the United States.

More than anything, she is committed to “walking the talk” in her Enneagram work—using the Enneagram as a tool in her own ongoing, life-long inner work. Beatrice is passionate about supporting people in doing the work of creating more fulfilling relationships, work, and life experiences. She views the Enneagram as an important vehicle for the larger, all-important goal of raising global consciousness so we can, collectively, create a more positive, sustainable, and self-aware world community.[1]


Enneagram according to Beatrice chestnut[2]


Enneagram views the personality as a “false self” that develops to allow your (vulnerable and young) “true self” to adapt, fit in, and survive among other humans. This perspective holds that personality is a “defensive” or a “compensatory” self whose coping strategies developed to help us fulfill our needs and reduce our anxieties.

source:The Complete Enneagram: 27 Paths to Greater Self-Knowledge by Beatrice chestnut

Passion According to Beatrice chestnut[2]


Each Enneagram personality type is associated with one of nine “passions,” which point to the central emotional-motivational issue for each type. The passions are emotional (and often unconscious) drivers based on an implicit view about what you need to survive and how you can get it. Because the passions are motivated by a sense of lack, they create a basic dilemma or trap around which the personality is organized while striving to meet a basic need that never gets fulfilled.


Understanding the role of the passions is crucial to grasping the Enneagram, because they motivate action out of a hunger for something and yet obstruct us from finding real fulfillment through getting what we need to satisfy that hunger.This is because we only obtain what we really need when we transcend the limited purview of the personality. Only in becoming conscious of our motivations, can we get out of this cycle that leads nowhere.

source:The Complete Enneagram: 27 Paths to Greater Self-Knowledge by Beatrice Chestnut

3 instinct According to Beatrice chestnut[2]


 Self-Preservation: The Self-Preservation instinct focuses attention on and shapes behavior around issues related to survival and material security. It generally directs energy toward safety and security concerns, including having enough resources, avoiding danger, and maintaining a basic sense of structure and well-being. Beyond these basic concerns, the self-preservation instinct may place emphasis on other areas of security in terms of whatever that means for a person of a specific type (once it mixes with one of the nine passions).

 Social Interaction: The Social instinct focuses attention on and shapes behavior around issues related to belonging, recognition, and relationships in social groups. It drives us to “get along with the herd”—our family, the community, and the groups we belong to. This instinct also relates to how much power or standing one has relative to the other members of “the group” in terms of whatever that might mean for a person of a specific type.

 Sexual Bonding: The Sexual instinct focuses attention on and shapes behavior around issues related to the quality and status of relationships with specific individuals.Sometimes referred to as the “One-to-One” instinct, it generally directs energy toward the achievement and maintenance of sexual connections, interpersonal attraction, and bonding. This instinct seeks a sense of well-being through one-to-one connections with people in terms of whatever that means for a person of a specific type.

 All three of these instincts operate in all of us, but usually only one is dominant in each individual—and when the powerful biological drive of that dominant instinct is put in service of the “passion,” it fuels a more specific expression of the personality, resulting in a more nuanced character (a subtype) of the main personality type.

source:The Complete Enneagram: 27 Paths to Greater Self-Knowledge by Beatrice Chestnut


Subtype According to Beatrice chestnut[2]


SUBTYPES EXIST WITHIN EACH of the nine types, broken down into three distinct versions according to how the passion of each type combines with one of three instinctual biases or goals that all social creatures share, directed either toward Self-Preservation, Social Interaction, or Sexual (or One-to-One) Bonding.

When the passion and the dominant instinctual drive come together, they create an even more specific focus of attention, reflecting a particular insatiable need that drives behavior. These subtypes thus reflect three different “subsets” of the patterns of the nine types that provide even more specificity in describing the human personality.

source:The Complete Enneagram: 27 Paths to Greater Self-Knowledge by Beatrice Chestnut

Countertype According to Beatrice Chestnut[2]


For each of the nine types, there is a “countertype” subtype. In every case, with each of the nine points of the Enneagram, there are two subtypes that go with the flow of the energy of the passion and there is one that is upside-down: one that doesn’t look like the others and goes against the main energetic direction of the passion. This “counter-passional” type is called the “countertype” of the three subtypes. For example, the “counter-phobic” Sexual Six is the most well known of the countertypes. It’s a Six who’s unafraid. The passion of the Six is Fear, but the Sexual subtype goes against fear by being strong and intimidating as a way of coping with fear.

source:The Complete Enneagram: 27 Paths to Greater Self-Knowledge by Beatrice Chestnut

Subtypes in Brief According to Beatrice Chestnut[2]


 The brief descriptions of the subtype personalities that follow provide an overview of this third level of the Enneagram’s structure and highlight two important aspects of subtype: the movement from center to passion to instinct that defines each personality, and the “countertype” of each of the type’s group of three subtypes. We will explore each of these personalities in greater depth in the proceeding chapters.


 Body Center Subtypes  




 Self-Preservation Nine: “Appetite” Instead of feeling an ongoing connection to their feelings, desires, and power, Self-Preservation Nines focus on merging with physical comforts and routine activities, such as eating, sleeping, reading, or doing crossword puzzles. SP Nines are practical, concrete people who focus on everyday things rather than abstractions.

 Social Nine: “Participation” (countertype) Social Nines fuse with groups. They act out laziness when connecting with their own inner life by working hard to be a part of the different groups in their lives. Fun-loving, sociable, and congenial characters, Social Nines can be workaholics, prioritizing the group’s needs above their own. This high level of activity makes them the countertype of the three Nine subtypes.

 Sexual Nine: “Fusion” Sexual Nines express the passion of laziness by merging with the important people in their lives. Sexual Nines unconsciously take on the attitudes, opinions, and feelings of others, because it can feel too hard to stand on their own. These Nines tend to be kind, gentle, shy characters who are not very assertive.




 Self-Preservation Eight: “Satisfaction” Self-Preservation Eights express the passion of lust through a focus on getting what they need for survival. SP Eights have a strong desire for the timely satisfaction of material needs and an intolerance for frustration. SP Eights know how to survive in difficult situations and feel omnipotent when it comes to getting what they need. They are the least expressive and the most armed of the three Eight subtypes.

 Social Eight: “Solidarity” (countertype) Social Eights express lust and aggression in the service of others. A social antisocial person, this is the countertype of the Eights, a helpful Eight who appears less aggressive and more loyal than the other two Eight subtypes. The name “Solidarity” emphasizes their tendency to offer help when people need protection.

 Sexual Eight: “Possession” Sexual Eights express lust through rebellion and the need to possess everyone’s attention.Sexual Eights are intense, charismatic characters who want to have control and influence.Instead of seeking material security, they try to get power over things and people. The name “Possession” refers to an energetic takeover of the whole scene—a need to feel powerful through dominating the whole environment.




Self-Preservation One: “Worry” Self-Preservation Ones are the true perfectionists of the three Ones. They express the passion of anger through working hard to make themselves and the things they do more perfect. In this subtype, anger is the most repressed emotion; the defense mechanism of reaction formation transforms the heat of anger into warmth, resulting in a friendly and benevolent character.

 Social One: “Non-adaptability” Social Ones (unconsciously) consider themselves to be perfect; they express anger through focusing on being the perfect model of “the right way” to be. They have a teacher mentality that reflects an unconscious need for superiority. In the Social One, anger is half-hidden—there’s a transformation of the heat of anger into cold. This is a cooler, intellectual personality type in which the main theme is control.

 Sexual One: “Zeal” (countertype) Sexual Ones focus on perfecting others; they are more reformers than perfectionists. The only One who is explicitly angry, they act out anger through their intense desire to improve others and get what they want. They feel entitled in the way a reformer or a zealot can feel entitled: they believe they have a right to change society and get what they want because they have a higher understanding of the truth and the reasons behind “the right way to be.” The countertype of the Ones, they are more impulsive and outwardly angry—they go against the “counter-instinctive” tendency of the One to repress anger and impulses.


 Heart Center Subtypes  




Self-Preservation Three: “Security” (countertype) The Self-Preservation Three has a sense of vanity for having no vanity. This Three also wants to be admired by others, but avoids openly seeking recognition. Not just satisfied with looking good, the SP Three strives to be good. They are determined to be a good person—to match the perfect model of how a person should be. Being the perfect model of quality implies virtue, and virtue implies a lack of vanity. SP Threes seek a sense of security through being good, working hard, and being effective and productive.

 Social Three: “Prestige” Social Threes focus on achievement in the service of looking good and getting the job done. They act out vanity through their desire to be seen and have influence with people.They enjoy being on stage in the spotlight. Social Threes know how to climb the social ladder and achieve success. These are the most competitive and most aggressive of the Threes. They have a driving need to look good and possess a corporate or sales mentality.

 Sexual Three: “Charisma” Sexual Threes focus on achievement in terms of personal attractiveness and supporting others. In this Three, vanity is not denied (as in the SP Three) nor embraced (as in the Social Three), but is somewhere in between: it’s employed in the service of creating an attractive image and promoting important others. These Threes have a harder time talking about themselves and often put the focus on others they want to promote. They put a lot of energy into pleasing others and they have a family/team mentality.




 Self-Preservation Two: “Privilege” (countertype) Self-Preservation Twos “seduce” like a child in the presence of grown-ups as a way of (unconsciously) inducing others to take care of them. Everyone likes children, and the SP Two adopts a youthful stance as a way of getting special treatment well beyond childhood. As the countertype, it’s less easy to see pride in this Two because they are more fearful of and ambivalent about connecting with others. The title “Privilege” reflects this Two’s desire to be loved and prioritized just for being who they are, not for what they give to others. Related to the youthful stance, these Twos are playful, irresponsible, and charming.

 Social Two: “Ambition” The Social Two is a seducer of environments and groups—a powerful, leader type whose pride manifests as a sense of satisfaction in the conquest of an audience. This is a more adult Two in whom pride is the most obvious; the Social Two cultivates an image of being an influential, supercompetent person worthy of admiration. The name “Ambition” reflects this person’s desire to “be on top,” and as a result of this lofty position, receive advantages and benefits. This Two “gives to get” the most and always has a strategic angle when expressing generosity.

 Sexual Two: “Seduction/Aggression” One-to-One Twos seduce specific individuals as a way of getting needs met and feeding their pride. Similar to the “femme fatale” archetype (and male equivalent) this Two employs the methods of classical seduction to attract a partner who will meet all their needs and give them whatever they want. The name “Aggressive-Seductive” suggests a character who is appealing, but who also wants to wield some power. Energetically like a force of nature, this is a person who becomes irresistible, who inspires great passions and positive feelings as a way to meet needs in life.




 Self-Preservation Four: “Tenacity” (countertype) The Self-Preservation Four is long-suffering. As the countertype of the Fours, SP Fours are stoic in the face of their inner pain and they don’t share it with others as much as the other two Fours. This is a person who learns to tolerate pain and to do without as a way of earning love. Instead of dwelling in envy, SP Fours act out their envy by working hard to get what others have and they lack. More masochistic than melodramatic, these Fours demand a lot of themselves, have a strong need to endure, and have a passion for effort.

 Social Four: “Shame” The Social Four suffers more, feels more shame, and is more sensitive than the other two Fours. Envy fuels a focus on shame and suffering as they employ a strategy of seducing others into meeting their needs through an intensification of pain and suffering. They experience a sense of comfort in feeling melancholy. Envy also manifests in lamenting too much, taking on the victim role, and focusing on a sense of their own inferiority. Social Fours don’t compete with others as much as they compare themselves to others and find themselves lacking.

 Sexual Four: “Competition” Sexual Fours make others suffer as an unconscious way of trying to rid themselves of painful feelings of deficiency. In denying their suffering and being more shameless than shameful, they express their needs more and can be demanding of others. In seeking to be the best, they express envy in its manifestation as competition. They express “an envy that wants,” unconsciously turning their pain at inner lack into feelings of anger about not getting what they need from others.


 Head Center Subtypes  




Self-Preservation Six: “Warmth” Self-Preservation Sixes express the passion of fear through a need for protection, for friendship, and for banding together with others. In seeking protective alliances, SP Sixes endeavor to be warm, friendly, and trustworthy, which is why they bear the name “Warmth.” This most “phobic” of the Sixes has difficulty expressing anger, feels uncertain, and engages in a lot of self-doubt. For SP Sixes, fear manifests as insecurity, and they focus on relationships as a way of feeling safer in the world.

 Social Six: “Duty” Social Sixes express fear through a need to deal with anxiety by relying on abstract reason or ideologies as a frame of reference. Obeying authority through knowing what the rules are helps them to feel safe in the world. Unlike the SP Six, this Six has more certainty and can be “too sure” of things as a way of dealing with the anxiety of uncertainty. Social Sixes focus on precision and efficiency. They adhere to whatever the guidelines are as form of having a protective authority.

 Sexual Six: “Strength/Beauty” (countertype) Sexual Sixes express fear by going against fear—by becoming strong and intimidating.Trusting themselves more than others, these Sixes have the inner programming that when you are afraid, the best defense is a good offense. They take on a powerful stance, both in what they do and how they look, as a way of holding the enemy at a distance. Their anxiety is allayed through skill and readiness in the face of an attack.




Self-Preservation Five: “Castle” The Self-Preservation Five expresses avarice through a focus on boundaries—a need to be “encastled” in a sanctuary where they feel protected from intrusion and have control over their boundaries. SP Fives have a passion for being able to hide behind walls and know that they have everything they need to survive within those walls. They are the least expressive of the three Fives and they try to limit their needs and wants so that they can avoid being dependent on others.

 Social Five: “Totem” The Social Five expresses avarice through a need for “super-ideals,” relating to others with common interests through knowledge and shared values (rather than emotional connection). In this Five, avarice is connected to knowledge. Needs for people and for the sustenance that relationships provide get channeled into a thirst for information.“Totem” refers to a passion for high ideals, the need to idealize experts and seek knowledge connected to whatever ultimate values this Five adheres to. Social Fives engage in a search for the ultimate meaning to avoid experiencing life as meaningless.

 Sexual Five: “Confidence” (countertype) Sexual Fives express avarice through a search for ideal exemplars of absolute love. This is a Five with a romantic streak. The name reflects their need to find a partner who fulfills an ideal of trust. The most emotionally sensitive of the Fives, they suffer more, resemble Type Four more, and have more overt desires. They have a vibrant inner life that may be expressed through artistic creation but are still cut off from others in many ways.



 Self-Preservation Seven: “Keepers of the Castle" The Self-Preservation Seven expresses gluttony through making alliances and creating opportunities for gaining an advantage. Pragmatic and self-interested, these Sevens find safety through networking and being alert to opportunities that support their survival. The name “Keepers of the Castle” refers to their way of establishing a partisan network of allies through which they create safety and satisfy their needs. Cheerful and amiable, they have a love of pleasure and tend to get what they want.

 Social Seven: “Sacrifice” (countertype) As the countertype, Social Sevens go against gluttony through conscientious efforts to be of service to others. Conscious of wanting to avoid exploiting others, they have a need to be good and pure and to sacrifice their own needs in supporting the needs of others. They have a passion for being seen as good for the sacrifice of their own desires. They express an ascetic ideal and make a virtue of getting by on little. They express idealism and enthusiasm as a way of making themselves feel active and valued in the world.

 Sexual Seven: “Suggestibility” Sexual Sevens express gluttony through a need to imagine something better than ordinary reality. Gluttons for things of a higher world, they are idealistic dreamers with a passion for living in their imaginations. Sexual Sevens look at things with the optimism of someone who is in love; they see the world through rose-colored glasses. “Suggestibility” refers to being somewhat naive and easy to hypnotize. Light-hearted and enthusiastic, they focus on exciting possibilities and pleasurable fantasies, and they believe they can do everything.

source:The Complete Enneagram: 27 Paths to Greater Self-Knowledge by Beatrice Chestnut


The Nine Personality Archetypes According to Beatrice Chestnut[2]


 THE POWER OF THE ENNEAGRAM MAP lies in its highly accurate articulation of the automatic patterns associated with the personalities it describes. Each type has a habitual “focus of attention”—its most prominent patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving—as well as a central motivating “passion” or “chief feature.”


Body center types


Type Nine 


Focus of Attention: Nines focus attention on others, on what is going on in the environment, and on avoiding conflict and achieving harmony. Nines typically tune into what other people want, but do not have a clear sense of their own agendas.

 Patterns of Thinking and Feeling: Nines focus on getting along with others without “rocking the boat” and creating conflict. They’re emotionally steady and do not feel many highs or lows. Though they are anger types, Nines usually don’t feel their anger very often —they (unconsciously) dissociate from it as a way to avoid conflict or separation from others—so it tends to leak out in repressed forms, such as stubbornness or passive-aggressive behavior, or escape in big bursts every once in a while.

 Behavior Patterns: Nines like to “go with the flow,” and they automatically accommodate the agendas of others as a way of unconsciously avoiding expressing (or even registering) any preferences that could lead to conflict, though they may passively resist later when hints of latent desires surface. They dislike feeling controlled, but like structure and clear lines of authority. They make good mediators because they have an easy ability to see all sides of an issue and naturally find the common ground in conflicting points of view.

 Passion—Laziness: Laziness refers to an inaction of the psyche, a refusal to see, a resistance to change, and an aversion to effort, especially with regard to being aware of their own inner feelings, sensations, and desires. Rather than reluctance to take action, this passion is more about inattention to self and inertia of the will when it comes to tuning in to what is going on internally.


Type Eight 


Focus of Attention: Eights naturally focus their attention on power and control—who has it and who doesn’t, and how it’s wielded. They think in terms of the big picture and (mostly) dislike dealing with details. They see the world as being divided into “the strong” and “the weak,” and they identify with “the strong” to avoid feeling weak.

 Patterns of Thinking and Feeling: Emotionally, Eights usually have easy access to anger and (unconsciously) avoid registering vulnerable feelings. They typically appear fearless and can be intimidating to others, often without meaning to be. They like to be in control, engage in black and white thinking, think they know what’s best or true, and do not like to be told what to do.

 Behavior Patterns: Eights have a lot of energy, can accomplish big things, can confront others when necessary, and will protect people they care about. They can be workaholics, taking on more and more without acknowledging their physical limits, and refuse to experience vulnerable feelings that might slow them down. They can sometimes overwork themselves, even to the point of physical illness.

 Passion—Lust. Lust is a passion for excess and intensity in all manner of stimulation. It is a drive to fill up an inner emptiness through physical gratification. Lust in Enneagram terms is “a passion for excess or an excessive passionateness to which sexual gratification is only one possible source of gratification.”


Type One


 Focus of Attention: Like the “superego” function of Freud’s model, Ones focus on noticing error (in the form of deviations from an internally generated ideal), discerning right and wrong, and displaying a reliance on rules and structure.

 Patterns of Thinking and Feeling: Emotionally, Ones often feel resentment and irritation or anger that is restrained. The communication of aggression is in conflict with their belief that expressing anger is bad, so anger and other instinctual impulses are typically held back and then leak out as resentment, annoyance, criticism, and self-righteousness. Ones believe that there is a “right way” to do things and that we should all try to be more perfect.

 Behavior Patterns: Ones can be perceived as being rigid and highly structured in their behavior, relying on ritual and repetitive forms of doing. Typically, they follow the rules and are reliable, ethical, and hardworking.

 Passion—Anger: As an emotional passion, anger appears in its repressed form for Ones as resentment that seeks resolution in pursuing perfection and virtue. Ones display hostility toward the imperfect way things are and try to force things to conform to their ideal of how things should be.


Heart Center Types


Type Three


 Focus of Attention: Threes focus attention on tasks and goals to create an image of success in the eyes of others. Threes identify with their work, believing they are what they do, and lose touch with who they really are.

 Patterns of Thinking and Feeling: For a Three, thinking centers on “doing”—on accomplishing tasks and goals. Though a heart type, Threes (unconsciously) avoid their feelings because getting caught up in emotion prevents them from getting things done.

When they slow down enough for emotions to surface, they may feel a sense of sadness or anxiety related to being recognized for what they do and not for who they are. Threes tend to express impatient anger if someone or something gets between them and their goal.

 Behavior Patterns: Threes tend to be fast-paced workaholics. They find it very difficult to slow down and just “be.” They can be extremely productive and effective because of their laser-like focus on getting things done and reaching their goals.

 Passion—Vanity: V anity is a passionate concern for one’s image or for “living for the eyes of others.” Vanity motivates Threes to present a false image to others—to shape-shift into whatever image is the right or most successful image for the context.


 Type Two


 Focus of Attention: Twos focus on relationships, gaining approval, and seducing others through helpfulness as a strategic way to get their disowned needs met. Twos actively “read” the people around them and align with (what they perceive to be) their moods and preferences in order to maximize the potential for positive connection.

Patterns of Thinking and Feeling: Emotionally, Twos fear rejection and so they frequently repress their feelings in an effort to please others. When their emotions can no longer be repressed, they may display anger, sadness, anxiety, or hurt. Because of these contradictory impulses, Twos may feel emotionally conflicted. Twos also express happy feelings as a way of appearing likable to others.

 Behavior Patterns: Twos tend to be upbeat, energetic, and friendly, though sometimes this can mask (and be an overcompensation for) repressed needs and a tendency toward depression. They are driven and hardworking, especially in the service of others or a project they feel passionately about, but they can also be hedonistic and self-indulgent.

Twos may also play the role of martyr, sacrificing their own needs and desires to win over others, but then suffering for it.

 Passion—Pride: In the language of the Enneagram, pride functions as a need for self-inflation and gets expressed as a false generosity in the service of seduction and self-elevation. Pride also fuels a pattern of self-idealization and grandiosity, followed by a reactive devaluation and self-criticism.


 Type Four 


Focus of Attention: Fours focus attention on their own feelings, the feelings of others, and interpersonal connection and disconnection. They feel a sense of deficiency about their own worth, so they seek idealized experiences of qualities they perceive as outside themselves.

 Patterns of Thinking and Feeling: Fours value authentic expressions of a wide range of emotion. Their thought patterns center on what is missing in a given situation and on longing for whatever they perceive as ideal and somehow unavailable. They appreciate meaningful interactions rooted in real feelings and have a keen aesthetic sensibility based on the translation of emotional experience into artistic expression, but they tend to overidentify with feelings and dwell in melancholy (or anger).

 Behavior Patterns: Fours can be reserved and withdrawn, or energetic and active, or both.

They are emotionally intuitive, empathic, and intense. While specific behavior patterns vary according to subtype, Fours generally aren’t afraid of conflict, will work tirelessly when they feel passionately connected to something, and can see what’s missing and speak to it.

Passion—Envy: Envy manifests as a painful sense of lack and a craving toward that which is felt lacking. For Fours, Envy grows out of an early sense of loss that leads to a perception that something good is outside the Four’s experience—and that this something is necessary but missing because of an inner deficiency.


 Head Center Types  


Type Six 


Focus of Attention: Sixes focus on thinking about what might go wrong and strategizing and preparing for it. A response to an early experience of danger, Sixes have an adaptive strategy that centers on detecting threats and coping with fear.

 Patterns of Thinking and Feeling: It’s hard to talk about one kind of Six, because the three Six subtypes are so distinct. This can be traced to the three commonly understood ways of dealing with fear: fight, flight, or freeze. Analytical and strategic in their thinking, Sixes think in terms of how to manage uncertainty to feel safe. They think things through thoroughly, even to the point of getting paralyzed by overanalysis. Aside from fear, they tend to have less access to other feelings, though they can be the most feeling of the Head Types.

 Behavior Patterns: Sixes are watchful and alert in different ways, and share a common orientation to authority. They have a strong desire for a good authority, but can be suspicious of and rebellious against real-life authorities. Sixes are thoughtful and loyal to those whom they trust. They can be hard workers, intent on control and achievement, or they can have a hard time getting things done, getting caught up in procrastination, indecision, and fear of success. Their constant awareness of what might go wrong makes them excellent problem-solvers.

 Passion—Fear: Fear is an unpleasant emotional and physiological response to recognized sources of danger; it usually goes hand in hand with anxiety, which can be more or less conscious, depending on the subtype. Anxiety includes apprehension, tension, or uneasiness related to the anticipation of danger, the source of which is unknown or unrecognized and may originate inside one’s own mind.


 Type Five 


Focus of Attention: Fives believe knowledge is power, so they like to observe what’s going on around them without getting too involved, especially emotionally. They focus on accumulating information about subjects that interest them and managing their time and energy, which they perceive as scarce, by avoiding entanglements with others.

 Patterns of Thinking and Feeling: Fives live in their heads and habitually detach from their emotions. They are sensitive to emotional demands being placed on them. They typically have a narrow range of feeling and almost never show their emotions in public.

 Behavior Patterns: Fives are reserved and introverted, need a lot of time alone, and avoid interactions with people who (they fear) might deplete them. They are very analytical and objective, and they tend to spend a lot of time pursuing their intellectual interests.

 Passion—Avarice: Avarice is a holding back and holding in—the hoarding of time, space, and resources out of fear of impending impoverishment. It’s not so much greediness as retentiveness, a “drive to hold on to what [they] already have rather than [a] drive to acquire more.”


 Type Seven 


Focus of Attention: Sevens avoid unpleasant feelings by focusing on what feels pleasant and by keeping the mood upbeat to the point of reframing negatives into positives. A fear of being trapped in discomfort fuels quick thinking, creative problem-solving, and a focus on positive future possibilities.

 Patterns of Thinking and Feeling: Sevens have quick, synthesizing minds, with which they find links between the commonalities in different subjects, making rapid mental associations. Emotionally, Sevens like feeling happy or joyful emotions and dislike feeling fear, anxiety, sadness, boredom, pain, or discomfort. Their attitude is, “Why feel pain if you can feel happy instead?”

 Behavior Patterns: Sevens are energetic, fast-paced, innovative, and active. They usually have many interests and activities, which they pursue with enthusiasm. Sevens like planning for fun and maintaining many options, so they can keep their mood up and shift to the most pleasant option if one plan becomes undesirable or untenable.

 Passion—Gluttony: While we commonly think of gluttony in connection with food and eating too much, in the language of the Enneagram, gluttony is a passion for pleasure and a desire for more—an excessive indulgence in consuming whatever brings pleasure.


Source:The complete enneagram 27 Paths to Greater self knowledge by Beatrice Chessnut 





[2]Beatrice Chestnut(2021),The complete enneagram 27 Paths to Greater self knowledge


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